Frequency of Cryptococcal Meningitis in HIV-1 Infected Patients in North Central Nigeria

*Gomerep SS, Idoko JA, Ladep NG, Ugoya SO, Obaseki D, Agbaji OA, Agaba P, Akanbi MO, Badung BP, Otitoloju O

Available online Jul 13, 2018.

[ Original ] Volume 19, Issue 4, 2010, Pages 395-399


Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most
common severe life threatening fungal infection in AIDS
patients. It is an important cause of morbidity and
mortality. There is paucity of data on the prevalence of CM
in Nigeria.
We aimed to determine the frequency of CM, the clinical
presentation and immunological profile.
Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at the
Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), A total of 100
HIV-1 infected patients suspected of having meningitis or
meningoencephalitis were subjected to cerebrospinal
fluid (CSF) analysis (including Indian ink preparation and
fungal culture by conventional methods) and CD4 count
was determined using flow cytometry (count bit Y-R 1004
Partec Muster Germany).
Results: The freguency of CM was 36% in our cohort. The
commonest clinical presentation included headache
(100.0%), neck stiffness (77.8%), fever (72.0%), vomiting
(55.6%), personality changes (55.6%), photophobia
(27.8%) and convulsions (27.8%). The mean duration of
symptoms was 24 ±22 days with a median of 17 days. The
mean CD4 count was 89±60 cells/mm3 with a median of
82 cells/mm3.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of CM and the
associated severe immunosuppression underscores the
importance of early diagnosis of HIV infection which may
reduce the incidence of CM. There is the urgent need for
access to Amphotericin B and fluconazole in resource
constrained settings in addition to a wide access to


Cryptococcal meningitis, HIV, North central Nigeria,

October - December 2010

Volume 19 | Issue 4

Page Nos. 395-399

Online since Jul 13, 2018

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